The sword and buckler style of ancient Europe has only one major source right now, it is the oldest source we have and is known as the Royal Armouries MS I.33. The text dates to around the turn of the 13th to the 14th century and has not survived unscathed. Believed to be missing many portions, and the portions we do have are not without damage, the text is still incredibly thorough in its description of the fighting technique. A combination of verse and drawn images the text has been added to many times over the years, showing 4 different handwriting styles. Some of the terms are in German, while most of the text is in Latin. It shows a priest, sacerdos, and a scholar, scolaris, in a series of fighting positions with descriptions of who is at the advantage and what each can do in order to win the upper hand and respond to the motions of the other. Most of the text is incredibly descriptive, not hiding its intent behind poems or cryptic words, instead just clearly stating what each combatant should do at any given moment.